A translation method is a way used by a translator to achieve equivalence in the target language. Newmark states that there are two diagrams, each of which contains four items that have different preferences according to the chosen decision. Meanwhile, other experts claim that there are three stages in applying it – analyzing the source language, transferring the message, and restructuring.
Source Language Emphasis
The source language emphasis is on the left of the diagram where it is associated as the first step in the translation process. It refers to the original message without any interference from other cultures. Maybe the results will seem stiff, but it all comes back to the type of text and the target reader.
- Word for Word Translation. There are two functions of this translation method: either to understand the structure of the source language and as a pre-translation process. For instance, I can swim is translated into saya bisa berenang in Indonesia.
- Literal Translation. When the text has a context, but the translator chooses to translate it word for word to reach an equivalent, then it is called a literal translation. From a grammatical point of view, it is totally indeed the same message. Besides, the readers may not get the point. For instance, I am sick of you is translated into saya sakit karena Anda in Indonesia.
- Faithful Translation. The mechanism of this translation method is the same as word for word, but the message content in it is different. The message is usually in the form of facts and scriptures, so the translator does not want to change the essence of the source language.
- Semantic Translation. The scope of this translation method is a cultural term that is not very strong because it is not a parable. Therefore, the translator looks for the equivalent in the target language by translating it without changing the message. For instance, shopaholic is translated into orang yang gemar belanja in Indonesia.
Target Language Emphasis
The items on the right of this diagram refer to the target language, so there is a cultural adjustment there. This is also related to the translated text where the content is more expressive and not something sacred.
- Adaptation Translation. It is used to translate literary works such as poetry and comedies. Translators are able to adjust cultural content in the target language to convey the same message although the way to deliver is different. For instance, is not the moon lovely is translated into saya cinta Anda in Indonesia.
- Free Translation. The way to deliver by using this one is matter without manner or simply you can say the construction is totally different to source language. For instance, killing two birds with one stone is translated into sambil menyelam minum air in Indonesian.
- Idiomatic Translation. Idiomatic translation method tends to convey the message in target language by using colloquialism although its nuances are different. For instance, it is not my cup of tea translated into ini bukan hal yang biasa aku lakukan in Indonesian.
- Communicative Translation. Besides equivalency, this method tries to reach readability and acceptability for the readers, so there is such a simple yet essential adjustment. For instance, beware of dog is translated into awas ada anjing in Indonesian.
To summarize, the translation method is an initial way to translate as techniques will follow each item to complete the process, especially for the right side of the diagram. The different thing on the left side is true regarding the kind of text.