In translating English into other languages, many challenges can lead to translation errors due to the translator’s lack of knowledge of the source language. A lack of research or failure of the translator to understand the meaning of the source text can also lead to costly effects in many cases. Translation ‘false friends’ and English contronyms, for instance, are also other issues that are often overlooked, leading to inaccurate translations.
The difference in meaning should be a severe concern in translation as it can sometimes be fatal. Some new or untrained translators often unconsciously translate idioms, expressions, names, or slang words directly to another language without searching for the exact contextual meaning implied by the construction.
In some cases, many translators are unaware that such adaptations have given birth to many new English contronyms of one word to be used differently in other situations.
What are English contronyms and why are they important for translators?
A contronym is a term to refer to a single word that has two opposite meanings depending on the context in which it is used. It may seem ridiculous that one word can have two opposite meanings, but it is important for translators to recognize this oddity to avoid translation errors. For example, the word “seed” means to sow seeds on the ground, but it can also mean to clean the seeds from the fruit. This makes a sentence that says “seed a watermelon” can be interpreted differently without understanding the contextual background.
Since every language evolves naturally and influences each other, word development in every language is inevitable. In some cases, many translators are unaware that such adaptations have given birth to many new English contronyms of one word to be used differently in other situations.
The word “bolt” may be the clearest example of word development in English. Previously, the word bolt was an English verb that meant to secure or fasten something. In its development, this word then became a verb meaning to leave or run away. This development probably came from its noun meaning a projectile that usually travels fast.
What is important for the translator is to understand the context in which the words are translated so that it will not lead to errors that contradict the intended meaning. This knowledge is very important because contronyms in English can change the whole meaning of the translated material. Therefore, every translator should be aware that every part of the language has been translated correctly to prevent such mistakes.
In some fields that require accurate translation, such as the legal and medical fields, it is essential to be aware of words that have multiple and sometimes contradictory meanings, otherwise, mistakes in translation can be costly.
The word sanction, for example, is an example of an English term that can have two very contrasting meanings when applied in the legal field. The term can be interpreted as both punishment and official approval in very narrow contextual differences.
The opposite meaning of the word so-called contronym or Janus words is a real challenge for every translator that they require high language awareness to recognize and deal with such kind of ambiguity.
Consider the following two sentences:
- 1. Some parties demand official sanctions for the policy.
- 2. There are no effective sanctions against illegal gratuities.
Without contextual understanding, both “sanctions” in both sentences can be interpreted as punishment. However, the first sentence can be interpreted differently in a slightly different context when “they” ask for permission to enact new regulations for a desired purpose.
The word sanction should give us a clear picture of how the contronym should not be underestimated in translation to every language. Some languages may have different ways of perceiving each meaning, but like the use of the word sanction in translation to or from English, it should be done more carefully to avoid translation errors.
What are common pitfalls translators face with English contronyms?
Language is dynamic in nature since it is not a static entity. It evolves and adapts over time as a result of various factors, such as cultural shifts, technological advancements, social changes, and interactions between different language communities. That is the reason why translators must be careful and understand each aspect of the language thoroughly before attempting to translate important material.
The opposite meaning of the word so-called contronym or Janus words is a real challenge for every translator that they require high language awareness to recognize and deal with such kind of ambiguity. With this awareness, translators will have a better understanding that some exceptions in translating various linguistic constructions must always rely on background and context to avoid mistakes that may be fatal.
In mankind’s history, there were countless translation errors due to ambiguity including contronyms that have multiple interpretations. These kinds of mistakes often have expensive consequences and take a large number of lives. An example of this occurred during the war when a truce message was ambiguously taken as a declaration to continue fighting, leading to unmeasured actions on either side that cost many lives.
In many cases, there are also translators who rely too much on the use of machine translators to get quick results with little effort in language conversion. However, current machine translators are not perfect for full-scale translation. Many language elements cannot be translated perfectly thus it can damage the originality of the language. Therefore, language awareness of translators, interpreters, and editors is still playing a vital role in the success of translation.
What techniques can translators employ to minimize translation errors related to English contronyms?
Although contronyms are a real challenge in translation, any translator can minimize errors related to contronyms or other ambiguities by using the following techniques:
- Context Analysis – The technic requires translators to analyze carefully the context in which the contronym appears. Take into consideration the whole words, phrases, and meanings of the surrounding text or sentence. By understanding the context, it will help identify the intended meaning of the expression.
- Meaning Research and Verification – Thorough research to find out the various possible meanings and interpretations of a word that contains contradictory meanings. Consult dictionaries, glossaries, and reliable language references to gain a comprehensive understanding of the word and its possible conflicting meanings.
- Source Text Analysis – Carefully examine the source text and the message it is trying to convey. Be careful to consider the tone, intent, and audience. A thorough analysis of the source text will help identify potential clues or hints as to the intended meaning of the contronyms.
- Communication for clarifications – In cases of confusion, always ask for clarification from the client or the author. Participate in discussions with fellow translators, language professionals, or subject matter experts who have valuable insights and perspectives on the issues discussed. Effective communication with the relevant stakeholders in the project can help ensure the intended meaning of contronyms.
- Continuous Professional Updates – Stay up-to-date with language trends, language nuances, and changes in word meanings over time. Engage in continuous learning such as attending workshops, conferences, and training sessions to increase language awareness and keep up with language developments.
By applying these techniques, the translator can minimize the risk of potentially fatal translation errors related to contronyms and other ambiguities so as to ensure that every meaning of the source text can be accurately conveyed in the translation.